Heavy metals in uncontrolled agricultural farms compared to regulated organic farms

Jessica Briffa 1, Renald Blundell 2,3*, Emmanuel Sinagra 4, Joseph Grech 5

1 Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta

Faculty of Medicine and Surgery, Centre for Molecular Medicine, Biomedical Science Building, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta

3American University of Malta, Triq Dom Mintoff, Bormla, BML1013, Malta

4 Faculty of Science, Chemistry and Pharmacology Building, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta

5 Faculty of Science, Chemistry and Pharmacology Building, University of Malta, Msida, MSD 2080, Malta


Abstract

Anthropogenic activity in agricultural land has caused a rise in heavy metals which have been thought to enter the food chain. Livestock fertilizers, pesticides and untreated waters are some of the main pollutants of heavy metals in agricultural use. X-Ray Fluorescent (XRF) Spectrometer can be used to analyze soil samples rapidly and with no alteration to the for of the sample.

Comparing 101 samples from around Malta and Gozo were compared to 2 organic certified farms which confirmed through binomial testing that all ρ-values from the 101 samples compared with both controls, were less than the 0.05 level of significance stating that the district score differs significantly from the control value.

Keywords: Agricultural land, organic farms, XRF, heavy metals, pollution, environment, soil

 
References 

Publication
Article ID: O0401016    RA  Preprint
Received: 21/06/2021  
Accepted: xx/xx/2021
Published: xx/xx/2021 

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